In A Fresh Canvas I argued that there’s a human-factors advantage to allowing an XML document to contain names from multiple namespaces without requiring namespace prefixes on the elements from all but one of them. In What’s in a Namespace I looked at how namespaces and namespace imports work in programming languages, which generally allow both qualified imports (like XML Namespace) and unqualified imports as well.

I also said that I would demonstrate that unqualified imports could be added to XML in a well-defined way, if certain conditions were met. (The conditions are that the set of names in each namespace is known when the document is processed. This is the same condition that programming languages such as C++ and Java, that resolve the namespace of unqualified names at compile time, impose.) Here’s where I make good on that promise.

Running Example

The first example below is an LZX program. The second example is how the same program would look if XHTML and XInclude elements were qualified with their respective namespace prefixes. ^1^

Impliicit namespace qualifiers

<canvas xmlns="">
  <include href="button.lzx"></include>
  <button>Click <b>me</b></button>

Explicit namespace qualifiers

<canvas xmlns:xi="" xmlns="" xmlns:xhtml="">
  <xi:include href="mytext.lzx"></xi:include>
  <mybutton>Click <xhtml:b>me</xhtml:b></mybutton>

In order to show that the first document can be disambiguated into the same infoset as the second example, it’s sufficient to show a way to transform the first document into the second document. I’ll use an XSLT stylesheet to do this.

Defining the Name Map

In order to accomplish the transformation, we’ll need a map from unqualified names to qualified names. Here’s what the entries in the map look like:

source target
include xi:include
b xhtml:b
br xhtml:br
i xhtml:i
u xhtml:u
p xhtml:p

(where xi and xhtml are the prefixes that correspond to the XInclude and XHTML namespaces.)

I’ll represent this map in an XML file as a flat list of (key, value) pairs, where each key or value is represented by an XML element whose namespace and name are the namespace and name of the key or value. This representation lets us use XML Namespaces to define the namespaces for the key and value.

The keys have odd number positions, and values have even number positions.

<map xmlns:xi="" xmlns:lzx="" xmlns:xhtml="">

(Purists take note: This is a schema that has been optimized for readability, not processing. A schema that was optimized for processing would relate the corresponding keys and values hierarchicaly instead of positionally; for example, or. I experimented with these formats while I was writing this post and found them so unreadable I decided it was worth the extra XSLT to process the more readable schema above.)

To transform a document that uses unqualified names — all names are in the default (LZX) namespace — into one that uses qualified names — XInclude names are in the XInclude namespace and XHTML names are in the XHTML namespace — it’s sufficient to look each tag name up in this map, and if it’s found, replace it by the value.

The Stylesheet

Here’s the stylesheet that uses the map above to transform the first example into the second example. It copies every item in the source document unchanged unless the name and namespace of the source element match the element at an odd-numbered position in the map. If it does, the name of the element is replaced by the name of the element at the even-numbered position in the map.

The stylesheet only performs the replacement if it’s unique. One might want it to signal an error if an element in the source document matched more than one key. This would match the semantics of Java, where multiple namespaces can be wildcard-imported, but a name that is present in more than one unqualified import must be qualified at its point of use. Alternatively, one could choose the last value, for Python semantics, or define a file that contains an ambiguous map (that is, a relation that isn’t a function) as an error, whether or not the ambiguous key is used, for Common Lisp semantics.

<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="">

  <xsl:param name="map.file">qualify.xml</xsl:param>

  <xsl:template name="copy" match="/|`*|node()">
      <xsl:apply-templates select="`*|node()"></xsl:apply-templates>

  <xsl:template priority="1" match="*">
    <xsl:variable name="name" select="local-name()"></xsl:variable>
    <xsl:variable name="ns" select="namespace-uri()"></xsl:variable>
    <xsl:variable name="value" select="document($map.file)/map/*[
                  (position() mod 2)=1 and
                  namespace-uri()=$ns and
      <xsl:when test="count($value)=1">
        <xsl:element namespace="{namespace-uri($value)}" name="{local-name($value)}">
          <xsl:apply-templates select="`*|node()"></xsl:apply-templates>
        <xsl:call-template name="copy"></xsl:call-template>

Taking the Qualifiers Back Out

The same stylesheet can be used to remove the qualifiers, if it’s run on the inverse map. Here’s an auxiliary stylesheet that reverses a map file such as the one above. Here’s where we pay the price for the readable map file format. (We also paid it in the complex select expression that initializes value in the renaming stylesheet above.) This stylesheet contains a couple of extra lines, that aren’t needed for functionality, to copy the text and comments between entries and between keys and values in an entry, so that the result is readable.

<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="">

  <xsl:template name="copy" match="/|`*|node()">
      <xsl:apply-templates select="`*|node()|text()"></xsl:apply-templates>

  <xsl:template match="/map">
      <xsl:apply-templates select="`*"></xsl:apply-templates>
      <xsl:for-each select="*">
        <xsl:if test="(position() mod 2) = 1">
          <xsl:variable name="pos" select="position()"></xsl:variable>

          <xsl:apply-templates select="../node()[count(preceding-sibling::*)+1=$pos and not(self::*)]"></xsl:apply-templates>

          <xsl:apply-templates select="../*[position()=1+$pos]"></xsl:apply-templates>

          <xsl:apply-templates select="../node()[count(preceding-sibling::*)=$pos and not(self::*)]"></xsl:apply-templates>

          <xsl:apply-templates select="."></xsl:apply-templates>

When using this reverse map to remove namespace prefixes, an element that matches more than key should be ignored (in contrast to the possibilities for addin prefixes that were listed above). This is so that an element that needs an explicit namespace qualifier to disambiguate it, keeps this qualifier.


In the example above, the relation between the LZX, XInclude, and XHTML namespaces was baked into the processor (or whoever generates the name resolution map). An system designed for extensibility might allow per-document declarations, as the XML Include specification does. For example, a document that uses unqualified imports from XInclude and XHTML might begin with declarations to this effect:

<canvas xmlns="">
  <import namespace=""></import>
  <import namespace=""></import>
  <xi:include href="mytext.lzx"></xi:include>
  <mybutton>Click <xhtml:b>me</xhtml:b></mybutton>

The namespace qualification stage of the processing pipeline would in this case be responsible for retrieving or constructing maps for the XInclude and XHTML namespaces.

Stepping Back

Unqualified imports solve one of the XML readability problems when XML is being used as a programming language. They let the author combine names from multiple namespaces without writing a prefix for each element, unless this is necessary to disambiguate the element’s name.

As with unqualified imports in conventional programming languages, unqualified imports in XML involve a tradeoff. In exchange for brevity, they introduce ambiguity — even if it’s a local ambiguity that downstream processing disambiguates in a well-specified manner. They complicate the rules for determining a name’s namespace — both for processing stages (which must be placed after the disambiguation step given in XSLT in this posting), and for humans looking to determine which qualified name a given tag name in the document source refers to.

Unqualified imports also give up some degree of forwards compatability. An XML document that uses XML Namespaces won’t break if one of the namespaces is extended with a name that matches a tag name that is used, unqualified, in the document. A document that uses unqualified imports may.

These tradeoffs — a more complicated qualification model, decreased chance of forwards compatability — are the same tradeoffs that the use of unqualified imports raises in programming languages. Unqualified imports aren’t always appropriate, but they would be good as a choice for XML programming just as they are in conventional programming — to be used when the context makes them appropriate.

In the design of LZX, we decided the context was appropriate for unqualified imports. The current implementation of LZX doesn’t actually use this system (you can’t actually use xi:include and xhtml:b, just include and b), but LZX is designed to be forwards-compatable with a system that does.